Saturday, January 18, 2020

Possible Solutions For Environment Problems Essay

Global warming has become a major issue discussed over Medias and governments all over the world today. It is a problem that threatens the whole world because of the destructive impacts it can have on us humans and to the environment. Global warming is not a new phenomenon. It is often referred to as the gradual rise of the earths near surface temperature as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities. The green house gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, ozone and water vapor, they act as a blanket that traps enough heat from the sun to warm the earth. This is the green house effect as it is essential to life, for without it the earth would be so cold and would be uninhabitable. If not enough are in the air then the earth would become cold, but if too many gases are released into the air, then we have the problem of things heating up. The releasing of green house gases by humans slowly warm the earth, potentially changing the world’s climate pattern causing sea levels to rise and more disastrous effects. Now that the causes and effects of global warming are known, there can be strategies done to minimize its causes and effects. To achieve this countries and individuals have to work together to fight global warming, agreements made at the Kyoto Protocol is to minimize burning of fossil fuels in world leading countries of greenhouse gas emission including the United States and China. The earth’s atmosphere is made up of gases; carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and nitrogen, these gases are known as the greenhouse gases, they trap heat from the sun to warm the earth. Without them the earth would be so cold. Most scientists believe that the sharp increase of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere is warming the earth’s climate. Gases such as carbon dioxide, CFC and methane are the most released gases due to daily human activities. Exhaust from automobiles, smokes from coal fired power plants and deforestation are the major contributors to greenhouse gas emission. The largest greenhouse gas emitters are the densely populated and more developed countries such as the United States, China and Russia. Motor vehicles are the highest emitter of greenhouse gas; they produce high levels of carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide which is released into the atmosphere. Another major source is the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and wood) by power plants to generate electricity. In 2003 the United States released  more than 5 million tons of gases from power plant alone. An increase of forest fires or deforestation for land clearing has lessened the amount of trees. Trees play a vital role in trapping carbon dioxide, when deforestation occurs more carbon dioxide is released. The Amazon is the largest carbon dioxide forest emitter (Protecting Forests). Any resource consuming method releasing quantities of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide or even water vapor contributes to the effect (Tapia 2007). These mass emissions of greenhouse gases cause the atmosphere to trap more heat thus leading to the warming of the earth. As the temperature rises the earth becomes hotter and hotter causing polar ice caps and glaciers across the globe to melt. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific body tasked to evaluate the risk of climate change caused by human activity, has released their latest report (Summary for Policy Makers 2007) on how global warming is affecting the earth. The report shows that the â€Å"sea ice in the arctic is shrinking in all seasons, most dramatically in summer†¦.Important coastal regions of the ice sheets on Greenland and West Antarctica, and the glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula, are thinning and contributing to sea level rise†( IPCC 2007, p.109). Another cause of sea level rise is the thermal expansion of water; this means that the increase in the earth’s temperature heats the ocean causing it to expand. The combination of water from melting glaciers, ice sheets and the thermal expansion causes sea level to rise. Rising of sea level leads to erosion and flooding but the most disastrous of all is the drowning of low lying islands and cites, the island of Tuvalu is slowly sinking from the rising in sea level. A warmer ocean can change weather patterns and could cause extreme weather events as already experienced in 2005 weather condition caused number of tornadoes and hurricanes in the United States and Asia( Tapia, 2007). The continuous rise in temperature and melting of ice caps is changing the landscapes in the artic circle making it uninhabitable for animal species including polar bears, seals and whales because they are only adapted to cold climate. Other effects include severe droughts in dry climate areas such as Africa has already leaded to famine. Fatal heat waves have already triggered massive bush fires in Australia and Europe, not only that but these heat waves could cause skin cancer. The  IPCC’s report concluded that if the temperature continues to rise within the next 50 years or so, its effects on us humans and our planet will be more disastrous (IPCC, 2007). However there could be strategies done to prevent global warming and its effects. Since us humans are the main source of global warming we are the only ones that can prevent its causes to minimize its devastating effects. As mentioned before that human activities such coal power plant emissions and deforestation are amongst the leaders of carbon dioxide emitters. Large industrialized countries should cut down the level of carbon dioxide emitted from coal fired power plants. The Kyoto protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), their goal is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in large industrialized countries such as the United States (Kyoto Protocol 2008). Another step is the banning of coal fired power plants, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies told the â€Å"Terra Daily† that â€Å"There should be a moratorium on building any more coal-fired power plants until the technology to capture and sequester the (carbon dioxide emissions) is available,† he believes that the suspension of coal fired power plant is the key to cutting carbon dioxide emission (Staff Writers, 2007). Moreover we could use energy from renewable sources such as wind and solar power because it is much cleaner than fossil fuels. For example, more than 40 percent of the US states is increasingly using renewable energy because it is more affordable and cleaner than fossil fuel (Clean Energy, 2007). While reducing industrial emissions is critically important, we should also stop deforestation of rainforests such as the Amazon where trees are cut down, burned and cleared for agriculture and cattle grazing (Forest Holocaust & Protecting Forests). We could stop deforestation and replant more and more trees to replace the fallen trees. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Simmons (2005, September 11). 5 deadliest effects of Global Warming, Retrieved February 28 2008 from Writers (2007, February 27). Climate Science, retrieved March 2 2008 from

Friday, January 10, 2020

Symbolic And

Their efforts seem to have paid off, as evidenced by the enduring well-defined, and strong images of some of the world's popular brands (e. G. Marlboro, Ivory, Pepsi). In line with this evidence, theorists and practitioners (CB. Gardner and Levy, 1955; Park et al. , 1986; Rise and Trout, 1 986) have recommended that developing, communicating, and maintaining a brand's image is crucial to its long-term success. 32 Brand image important The importance of a brand's image in its long-term success necessitates having a framework for strategically managing the image over the long term Park et al. , 1986).Brand managers have had very little direction for setting up such a conceptual framework. One notable exception is brand concept management (BCC) proposed by Park et al. (1986). BCC proposes that every brand image should be based on a brand concept or a brand-specific abstract meaning. In its general form, a brand concept can be either symbolic or functional, and thus comprises one aspect of a brand's image. Functional brands satisfy immediate and practical needs. Symbolic brands satisfy symbolic needs such as those for self-expression and prestige, and their racial usage is only incidental.For example, in the category Of wrist watches, the brand Cassia would be considered a functional brand since its usefulness lies primarily in its ability to tell the time correctly. The brand Moved, on the other hand, would be considered a symbolic brand since it is used primarily for its status appeal, and its ability to tell the time is only an incidental reason for its usage. Once a concept is selected for a brand, park et al. (1986) advise that it should be maintained over the brand's life for sake of consistency. Symbolic or functionalWhile the notion of brand concept management is intuitively appealing, the proposition that brands can be either symbolic or functional in their appeal to consumers raises a number of interesting issues. The first issue is whether symbolism and functionality are two distinct concepts or are two ends of one brand concept continuum. In addition to the uniqueness of these two concepts, park et al. (1986) assume that each of these concepts is unidirectional. Whether that is really so has not been examined in empirical research to date.Also, to our knowledge, no measures or scales have been plopped that would assess whether a particular brand is symbolic or functional. Thus, empirical research has not directly examined these related issues. An understanding of such issues would also be very useful to marketing managers in planning positioning strategies for their brands. In this exploratory study, a set of scales are developed to assess a brand's symbolic and/or functional value to consumers. In the process, we JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING, VOLT. 15 NO. 1 1998 up. 2-43 @ MAC UNIVERSITY PRESS, 0736-3761 examine the issue of distinctiveness and dimensionality of the two brand incepts. Two schools of thought Brand concept Backgro und There is a long tradition of research into human needs and motivations. While there are a large number of theories and models that explain the nature of human motivation for consumption behavior, a simple typology would suggest two distinct schools of thought. The rational school or the â€Å"economic man† model suggests that consumers are rational and try to maximize total utility.They do so by buying products based on objective criteria like price per ounce or gallons per mile (Coffman and Kane, 1994). In arriving at this excision, consumers generally go through a variety of cognitive operations that include deciding the importance of each attribute in a product category, gathering information about competing brands' attributes, judging the levels of each attribute in competing brands, and finally using a judgment rule to decide on the optimal brand (for an exhaustive review of the information processing literature, please see Bateman, 1979).A number of researchers, how ever, contend that the rational model is appropriate only for goods which consumers value for their tangible and utilitarian benefits, and does not adequately capture their motivation for consuming products that satisfy their emotional wants (CB. Levy, 1959; Ditcher, 1960; Holbrook, 1980). For example, Hiroshima and Holbrook (1982) note that the rational model does not capture the multistory imagery, fantasy, fun, and emotions associated with the consumption of some products.They refer to this type of consumption, based on individual tastes and intangible product benefits, as hedonistic consumption. Thus, in contrast to the rational or information processing approach, the emotional or hedonistic school holds that consumers' motives are motional in nature. In this perspective, individuals use personal or subjective criteria such as taste, pride, desire for adventure, and desire for expressing themselves, in their consumption decisions (Coffman and Kane, 1994). Consumer behaviorist's have long recognized the importance of both types of motivations (CB.Katz, 1960; Metal, 1983). Empirically, several researchers have noted the existence of these two different types of motivations and the different product attribute categories that tap into these motivations (CB. Metal, 1988; Metal et al. , 1990; Sahara and Siring, 1991). Thus, both theory and research support the idea that consumers' needs are driven by functional/ utilitarian as well as by symbolic/expressive motivations. In keeping with this tradition, park, Gasworks, and Manacling (1986) noted that consumers' needs could be classified as being either functional or symbolic.They assert that functional needs are related to specific and practical consumption problems whereas symbolic needs are related to Selfridges and social identification. To tap into these two different types of needs, Park, Gasworks, and Manacling (1986) proposed that all brands should have a â€Å"brand incept†, which is an overall abst ract meaning that identifies a brand. They suggested that a brand concept be either symbolic or functional, thus tapping into consumers' symbolic and functional needs respectively. Park et al. S (1986) brand concept management framework advises managers to select a specific concept for a brand at the time of its introduction and then use the marketing mix to support and reinforce it over the brand's life. This helps consumers understand with clarity what a brand can do for them. JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING, VOLT. 15 NO. 1 1998 33 Functional or utilitarian deeds The existence of different types of motivations among individuals suggests that within most product categories, consumers' needs could be either functional or symbolic in nature, and brands could be positioned to satisfy either of these two types of needs.Thus, functional or utilitarian needs of consumers could be exploited with a â€Å"functional† brand, I. E. One positioned with a functional brand concept or meanin g. Similarly, a brand could be positioned as a â€Å"symbolic† brand to tap the needs of those who wish to enhance their self-image or their social image. Park et al. Rather argued that brands should be positioned to appeal to either one of these types of needs, but not both, for a number of reasons. A brand concept that is both functional and symbolic poses problems for consumers because they cannot clearly relate the brand to either their functional or their symbolic needs.In addition, it increases the number of competing brands and makes brand image management difficult. This argument, however theoretically compelling, has not been tested in empirical research. In one related research, park et al. (1991 ) Were able to show that nonusers' reaction to functional extensions of functional brands was more favorable than their reaction to prestige extensions of functional brands. In the same study, consumers also displayed a more positive reaction to prestige extensions of prest ige brands than to functional extensions of prestige brands.Please note that, in this study, the authors assumed that brand concepts could be either functional or prestigious (not symbolic). Unanswered questions Several questions, though, remain unanswered. Are functional and symbolic brand concepts adequately distinguished in consumers' minds? If so, what are mom characteristics that help in distinguishing these brand concepts? Is the prestige of a brand an adequate representation of a brand's symbolism to its customers? Are functionality and symbolism merely the two ends of a continuum?In any event, is there a mechanism to assess the functionality or symbolism of brands? The paucity of research to illuminate these issues resulted in this study. This study was set up to answer the preceding questions: to investigate the phenomenon of the functionality or the symbolism of brand image and to develop scales that would help classify a brand as functional or symbolic. Apart from the the oretical contributions, the issues raised in this study have a number of managerial implications for brand positioning.Method In line with this study main objective of exploring the issue of brand mage functionality or symbolism, scales containing items thought to measure a brand's functional or symbolic value to consumers was developed. The scale was validated by testing the scale's ability to discriminate between brands a priori identified as functional or symbolic. Correlations among the items in the scale and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the data were seed to investigate the dimensionality of brand functionality and symbolism.Stimuli lie Pairs of brands were identified in a few commonly used product categories, such that one brand in each pair was, a priori, thought to be functional and the other symbolic. In other words, the first brand was thought to primarily satisfy functional needs whereas the second brand was thought to mainly satisfy the symbolic needs of consumers of the product category. The pairs of brands which were selected are shown in Table l. 34 Product category Symbolic brand Functional brand Watches Role Timex 2 Sports shoes Nikkei Converse 3 Cosmetics Lana ¶me Amiability 4 Hair cream Paul Mitchell Suave 5 Ice cream Hagen Dads Scaliest Table l.Item generation Adjectives or phrases thought to indicate a brand's symbolism or functionality were first generated by the authors and a focus group of graduate students at a university. The focus group noted the difficulty of coming up with adjectives describing functional or utilitarian appeal. Based on these processes, three adjectives and phrases were identified as relating to functionality and 17 as relating to symbolism. Three sets of questionnaire items Three sets of questionnaire items were developed for the 20 adjectives and phrases.The first set of questions sought respondents' agreement with various statements about individuals' use of a brand to express themselves. Th e second set of items sought respondentBrand symbolism The 17 adjectives and phrases representing brand symbolism were assessed with three sets of items. In the first set of items, respondents were to agree with these statements: (1) â€Å"people use (brand) as a way of expressing their personality'; (2) † (brand) is for people who want the best things in life†; (3) â€Å"a (brand) user stands out in a crowd†; and (4) â€Å"using (brand) says something about the kind of person you are†. The second set of items sought to evaluate these brand characteristics: (1) hemolytic; (2) prestigious; (3) exciting; (4) status symbol; and (5) distinctive v. Invitational. The third set Of items evaluated these characteristics Of the brand's user: (1) sophisticated v. Simple; (2) not at all v. Very romantic; (3) not at all v. Very successful; 35 (4) unique v. Ordinary; (5) stylish v. Plain; (6) expressive v. Subdued; (7) glamorous v. Sedate; and (8) not at all v. Very ele gant. Survey design and administration Two separate questionnaires were prepared with questions on five of the ten stimulus brands such that each questionnaire contained questions about one f the brands within a product category.Thus, a subject would answer the above questions with respect to either a symbolic brand or a functional brand within a product category but not both. This procedure was used to eliminate any comparative biases in responses. The survey was administered to 62 graduate students at a major south-eastern university. Rest Its Analysis of correlations TO obtain a preliminary idea of the pattern Of relationships among these items, the correlations among the items were first examined.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Methodology And Methods Of An Methodology - 1633 Words

Methodology and methods Methodology The chosen methodology for this project is a case study. The term methodology is an overall approach for a particular study (Sim and Wright, 2000). Case studies have been described as collecting small qualitative data (Gerring, 2007) focused on narrow, in-depth examinations of chosen topics (Savin-Baden and Major, 2012). This chosen methodology works well with my interpretivist paradigm approach whereby I intend to explore the viewpoint of one participant (Baxter and Jack, 2008) and depict the issues they encounter as a teacher. It is also beneficial to my project as it is a pilot study therefore is on a small scale and likely to provide in depth data which could be applicable to others (Merriam,†¦show more content†¦To be able to explore different areas of inquiry and have valuable data from my interview I will need to encourage my participant to talk freely and to feel relaxed when responding to my questions (Clough and Nutbrown, 2007). By collecting this data this way I w ill be addressing my research question (Sim and Wright, 2000). As my research question is an exploratory one carrying out a semi-structured interview is beneficial to my work because I intend gain insight and understanding to the issues teachers face. However, an issue with my chosen method is it will take place over the phone. This limits my data and I because my participant may not feel comfortable opening up without face-to-face interaction. However this may benefit my work as the phone can be a comfort for them. Due to this project being a small-scale pilot study, the paper requires only one example of a data collection method. As a result of this I am limited as I only have the opportunity to interview my participant once (Newbury, 2009). In spite of this, the loose structure of the interview can cover all topics which are vital to my research (Bell,2010). I will also have the advantage of taking my time during the interview. By carrying out a semi-structured interview I can ask questions which I may not have initially intended to ask. The conversation will not follow a strict structure nor time scale therefore allows myShow MoreRelatedResearch Methodology And Methods Of Research1033 Words   |  5 PagesCHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction There are various methods of research which can be implored in carrying out a study. Research method is very important because the use of different methods gives different results. This chapter explains and justifies the materials and the methods used in the research. The selection of method used for the research is based on the research problem, aim and objectives of the study to be achieved. 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Consent Is Required For Every Invasive Medical Procedure

Apprised consent is required for every invasive medical procedure, from getting your auditory perceivers perforated to having an abortion.(Bob McDonnell). Apprised consent customarily is provided by the patient in a formal, indicted consent form. Apprised consent is a person s accedence to sanction something to transpire, such as surgery or other invasive procedure, predicated on a full disclosure of jeopardies, benefits, alternatives, and consequences of refusal. If congruous apprised consent is not obtained, the patient may recuperate damages in an action against the medico under different theories of instauration. Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determine what will be done with his own body; and a surgeon who performs an operation without his patient s consent commits an assault, for which he is liable in damages. This is true, except in cases of emergency where the patient is insensate, and where it is obligatory to operate afore consent can be obta ined, more recently, many states have enacted patient bill of rights statutes. These laws proscribe treating a patient without first providing compulsory information to obtain apprised consent. They withal are predicated on mundane law principles and the premise that patients have the right to make decisions about their own medical care and treatment (Backlund v. University of Washington, 1999). the doctrine of apprised consent requires the medico to explicate the nature and probableShow MoreRelatedThe Ama Code Of Medical Ethics1520 Words   |  7 Pages Informed consent is defined as â€Å"permission granted in the knowledge of the possible consequences† and is the backbone to honorable physician patient interactions. 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See chart below: This is the universal protocol for preventing wrong site, wrong procedure, and wrong Patient Surgeries. In evaluating this, I must review all standards that go hand in hand with the time-out standard; per Nightingale Community Hospital policy, Site Identification and Verification (Universal Protocol). I will address the elements of performance for all three: UP.01.01.01; Conduct a preprocedure verification process. UP.01.02.01; Mark the procedure site, and

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Essay about Thesis Document Management System - 11241 Words

College of Computer Studies Thesis Document Management System University of Perpetual Help System DALTA – Calamba Campus College of Computer Studies Thesis Document Management System A Software Project Presented to the Faculty of the College of Computer Studies In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Software Engineering Moreno, Ma. Angelica S. Pua, Abigail A. Torre, Juan Paulo I. March 2014 College of Computer Studies Thesis Document Management System University of Perpetual Help System DALTA – Calamba Campus APPROVAL SHEET This Research and Development special project entitled College of Computer Studies Thesis Document Management System, prepared and submitted by Ma. Angelica S. Moreno, Abigail A. Pua, and Juan Paulo†¦show more content†¦Through this proposed system, the organization will be able to minimize errors, expenses and laborious works thus improving quality and increase output. The software project has been reviewed using the ISO 9126 to evaluate the system quality. The characteristics that results a highest rank was the systems portability and the lowest criteria being assessed was the reliability of the presented system. After a comprehensive study of the information and application, the researched contained in this study has contributed towards a recommendation for further development of the College of Computer Studies Thesis Document Management System into a full software system. It will be a useful equipment inventory and locator system application for different sector such as business, academe, government because it will contribute a big part for document management system. vi College of Computer Studies Thesis Document Management System University of Perpetual Help System DALTA – Calamba Campus TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE................................................................................................................................i APPROVAL SHEET...................................................................................................................ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...........................................................................................................iiiShow MoreRelatedPlanning Of Implementation Of Proposed Work Essay1155 Words   |  5 Pagesdocumenting process and more time is given for designing part. We can use the iterative mode for software development when the requirements of the complete system are clearly defined and understood and also the project is big scale. Figure 3.1: Iterative Waterfall Model GHRIET-Pune, Department of Computer Engineering, 2016 Fault Tolerant System For 3 hop routing protocol in HWN’s 11 Table 3.1: Implementation Plan Task Description Duration Literature Survey A research to investigate various MethodsRead MoreIntroduction Of A Supply Chain Management1564 Words   |  7 Pagesa set of organizations that work together to take in raw materials, convert the raw materials into higher value products, and sell the products to the end customer (Kelly 2005). The management of these flows to generate profit is known as supply chain management (Sodhi and Tang 2012). Supply chain risk management (SCRM) is defined, very broadly, as the identification, analysis and evaluation of events that can have a negative effect on supply chain performance. 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Monday, December 9, 2019

Stakeholder Theory of Modern Corporation †

Question: Discuss about the Stakeholder Theory of Modern Corporation. Answer: Introduction With the advancement in technology and strict rules in regarding environmental pollution, the role of management in an organization is becoming more sophisticated. Trust is a crucial factor in the business environment. In building brand loyalty, managers must gain trust from customers and all the stakeholders of an organization. According to Harris, Moriarty, and Wicks (2014), trust can be viewed as the expectation that the decisions that a relationship partner makes will benefit the trusting partner. In today's business world, consumers expect a high quality of goods produced as per their expectations and specifications. The more complex issue in the management of organizations and building trust is that, as companies try to go global, they have to comply with regulations which differ from country to country. Managers face the challenge of maximizing profits while adhering to strict rules. On the other hand, businesses are increasingly becoming exposed due to the availability of med ia technologies which enable the public to scrutinize the behaviour and general performance of any business worldwide. Organizational theories have emphasized on integrity and upholding business ethics in making decisions that will have an impact on all the stakeholders. Using Volkswagen as a case organization, the paper is aimed at exploring the complex nature of organizations decision making in handling management issues with reference to institutional theory and stakeholder theory. Founded in 1937, Volkswagen is one of the largest manufacturers of automobiles. It operates as a public company in Germany, and it is headquartered in Wolfsburg (Forbes 2017). Due to the stiff competition in the automobile industry, Volkswagen has been involved in the manufacture of hybrid cars with state-of-the-art technology in order to maintain a competitive edge. The most recognized brands include Bently, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Audi, Porsche, SEAT, and Skoda (Forbes 2017, p. 1). With the increasing need to protect the environment, countries around the world have put strict regulations on the level of exhaust gas emissions from vehicles. This has led automakers to develop technologies to ensure that the vehicles being manufactured comply with the standards. The desperate need to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency standards in the United States made Volkswagen, under the management of Martin Winterkorn in 2015, to develop software, known as the "defeat device" which has the ability to manipulate the results of emission tests (Edwing 2016). The device has the capability to detect when the vehicle is being tested for carbon dioxide emission after which it adjusts the performance to achieve improved results (Hotten 2015). In that case, all the vehicles that were tested passed, but, in actual sense, they were emitting more carbon dioxide than the regulation agencies recommend. The public was shocked when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found out about the device. Volkswagen had been involved in cheating which is in contrary to business ethics. Even after the EPA found out, the then CEO Mr. Martin Winterkorn denied the allegations, stating that he never knew about it. This showed a lack of transparency within the organization. Identification and Analysis of the Issues The problems surrounding the Volkswagen scandal can be described using the stakeholder theory and the institutional theory. It can be seen that the company wanted to achieve the goal of more profits by selling more diesel cars in the United States and across the world. When the Environmental Protection Agency tested the cars, it was discovered that some car models were equipped with 'duping' device which forced Volkswagen to recall over eleven million of their cars from the market around the world (Hotten 2015). After the revelation, the company became a target of regulatory investigations in various countries around the world such as the United States, France, South Korea, Italy, Canada, Germany and the United Kingdom who were trying to find out how many people were aware of the deceit within the organization (Zhou 2016). The stakeholder theory serves as an appropriate lens when analyzing complex perspectives of how stakeholders consider as valuable. According to Freeman (2012), stakeholder theory in the management of organizations and business ethics is one that addresses the morals and values that govern an organization. Freeman, Rusconi, Signori and Strudler (2012) argue that the theory does not have any comprehensive claims, but it is essential as it provides tools that organizations' managers can utilize in order to add value to their supply chain, tools to help the various stakeholders improve their relationships with the managers and tools that help scholars to understand how businesses create value along the supply chain. The stakeholders, according to Harrison and Wicks (2013), include everyone that is affected either directly or indirectly by the policies and decisions that a company makes. With this regard, the Volkswagen stakeholders include the shareholders, customers, employees, dealers, the environment, the companys executives and the governments. According to Stakeholders theory, Organizations are expected to act for the greater good of all the stakeholders. The companys decision to install cheat device so that their cars can pass the carbon dioxide emission test was an act of selfishness that was driven by the need to gain more profits. This act is against the stakeholder theory which advocates for the recognition of all the stakeholders. The companys decisions should always be aimed at satisfying and be in compliance with the expectations of the stakeholders. The Volkswagens response to the allegations further showed a lack of respect and transparency. According to Zhang, Veijalainen, and Kotkov (2016, p. 1), the responses provided by actors involved in a certain crisis is critical for the survival and growth of businesses. Lack of transparency when communicating to stakeholders causes negative image for the organizations (Zhang, Veijalainen and Kotkov 2016, p. 1). The Volkswagen CEO failed to use the language of stakeholders which would have made it easier for him to integrate business and ethics together. The CEO of the company lied to the public that he was not aware of the device which showed a lack of ethics and the necessary tools to handle a crisis. The management of the company was facing a trade-off between stakeholders and financial gains where instead, the management chose financial sustainability at the expense of the stakeholders. The actions taken by the management affected all the stakeholders in different ways such as loss of jobs, changes in the stock market, environmental issues and tarnished reputations. The institutional theory is another lens that can be used to analyze the issues surrounding Volkswagen. The theory mainly emphasizes on the aspects of social structure. An institution is defined by Scott (2014) as a set of rules and practices that define the meaning and what is perceived as appropriate social behaviour. Scott (2014) described the concept of institutions in three pillars, namely the regulative, normative and the cultural-cognitive pillars (p. 59-66). Based on the three pillars, rules can be understood as the formal regulations, social norms and obligations and the common understandings and beliefs. These rules have a significant influence on how organizations' managers think and act. The rules form the basis in which human beings handle issues and how they perceive things as necessary or morally correct. The application of this lens helps in understanding why individuals and organizations act in a particular manner. Based on this theory, managers are expected to demon strate social and environmental responsibility in carrying out their duties (Salvioni, Astori, Cassano 2014). The Volkswagen scandal shows a discrepancy between the organizations formal statements and the substantial behaviours. Volkswagen was highly trusted by its consumers and other stakeholders to uphold a business code of ethics in their operations. As such, based on the institutional theory, Volkswagen is expected to be transparent in conducting their business and how they communicate to the various stakeholders. Transparency, according to Ephraim (2016, P. 1), comprises of integrity, ethics, honesty, full disclosures, clarity and such factors that lead to good relations among stakeholders. When Volkswagen first delivered a press statement on September 18, 2015, the CEO said that the company was committed to fixing the issue as soon as possible. The message further stated that the company wanted to assure its customers and other stakeholders that their vehicles were safe to dr ive (US Media Site 2015). It can be seen that the message tone is formal and detached; it lacks transparency and empathy for the external stakeholders of the company affected in different parts of the world. It is apparent that Volkswagen vehicles were not safe since they were emitting gas above the permitted level. The message showed a lack of transparency. Based on the institutional theory, the management was supposed to acknowledge the mistakes and plan to correct, and not focussing on promoting the brand image. Recommendations Volkswagen strategies should be aimed to win the trust of customers back. Volkswagen should join an independent verification agency that would be responsible for confirming the performance of their vehicles. The company should partner with independent agencies which the customers can trust. Based on the stewardship theory, Volkswagen managers are expected to act as leaders in making decisions that would benefit the society as a whole. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development is an example of the agencies that Volkswagen can partner with. It is an internationally recognized organization that is aimed at creating sustainable future for businesses, society and the environment (Zhou 2016). Another strategy to win back customer trust is to post a bond as an assurance to the public that such a thing will never happen again. This calls for a strong leadership stands supported by the stewardship theory. The bond will indicate credibility. Volkswagen should make it public that if such a thing happens again, they will fully take responsibility by paying the bond to the European Commission of Automotive Industry and all the affected parties. This will make consumers and other stakeholders to believe that the company is ready to act for the greater good of the society. Conclusion Transparency and trust are important factors in an organization. It can be hard to gain customers loyalty but losing it can happen in just a blink of an eye. Regaining consumer trust is a hurdle which comes with several business and societal implications. Organizations are expected to act in a way that recognizes all the stakeholders and show responsibility in their dealings. Volkswagen has a role to the environment, consumers, shareholders and its employees. The company management should always have the stakeholders in mind when making decisions and in times of crisis. List of References Edwing, J., 2016. Martin Winterkorn, Ex-C.E.O. of Volkswagen, Is Under Investigation. The New York Times [Online]. Available at: Ephraim, P.E., 2016. Transparency and Ethical Considerations in Business Organizations: A Comparative Case Study of Crisis Relations Strategies of Volkswagen and Mitsubishi Motors. International Journal of Online Marketing Research, 2(2), pp.1-9. Forbes. 2017. Worlds Biggest Public Companies [Online]. Available at: Freeman, R.E. 2012. Stakeholder Theory of Modern Corporation. [online]. Available at: Freeman, R.E., Rusconi, G., Signori, S. and Strudler, A., 2012. Stakeholder theory (ies): Ethical ideas and managerial action. Journal of business ethics, 109(1), pp.1-2. Harris, J.D., Moriarty, B.T. and Wicks, A.C., 2014. Public trust in business. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres Harrison, J.S. and Wicks, A.C., 2013. Stakeholder theory, value, and firm performance. Business ethics quarterly, 23(01), pp.97-124. Hotten, R., 2015. Volkswagen: The scandal explained. BBCNews. [Online]. Available at: Salvioni, D.M., Astori, R. and Cassano, R., 2014. Corporate Sustainability and Ethical codes effectiveness. Scott, W.R., 2014. Institutions and organizations: Ideas, interests, and identities. Sage Publications. US Media Site. 2015, September 18. VOLKSWAGEN STATEMENT REGARDING EPA INVESTIGATION. [Online]. Available at: Zhang, B., Veijalainen, J. and Kotkov, D., 2016. Volkswagen Emission Crisis: Managing Stakeholder Relations on the Web. In WEBIST 2016: Proceedings of the 12th International conference on web information systems and technologies. Volume 1, ISBN 978-989-758-186-1. SCITEPRESS. Zhou, A., 2016. Analysis of the Volkswagen Scandal Possible Solutions for Recovery.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Stereotypes Of Men In Advertisements Essays - Gender Studies

Stereotypes Of Men In Advertisements Visual representation of reality, as seen through mass media, is acknowledged by sociologists to be influential in shaping people's views of the world. Our everyday realities are articulated mostly by what we see in the media. The role of advertising in this interpretation of reality is crucial. The target audience's self-identification with the images being a basic prerequisite for an advertisements effectiveness, makes advertising one of the most important factors in the building of behavior models and values systems. The way a certain notion is managed at a visual level determines how people will perceive this notion and whether they will identify with it or not. Meaning is encoded in the structure of the images, which thus become potent cultural symbols for human behavior. The framing and composition of the image, the setting, the symbolic attributes and every other element in its structure, all are engaged in the effective presentation of the underlying notion. What do images of the male body in advertising reveal about the notion of masculinity today? What is todays model man? Is there consistency in the visual representation of masculinity or are there competing images of it? In this study I will do a content analysis of the portrayal of men in 20 magazine advertisements. 5 ads were taken from Maxim, a mens magazine targeted at 20 to 30 something males. 4 were taken from Mens Journal, a mens magazine targeted at men from 30 to retirement age. 5 were looked at from Harpers Bazaar, a womens magazine targeted at adult women. 4 were taken from Allure, a womens magazine targeted at women in their 20s and 30s, and two were taken from Entertainment Weekly, an entertainment magazine with a non gender specific target audience. I selected these ads by tearing out all of the ads in each magazine with a man or men in them, scattering them face down on the floor and picking up a few. I intend to look at these ads as a group of 20, looking at collective similarities among them and any common stereotypes and themes in the way these ads portray men. I also intend to examine any general differences between the ads fro the mens magazines, and those from the womens magazine s, as well as differences along product lines. I expect to see reinforcement of the stereotypes discussed in Denise Kervins study as well as the stereotypes delineated by other authors cited in this paper. I expect that these reinforcements will occur as much as, but in a different way than is seen earlier in time as discussed in the various literature cited in this paper. I also expect that these stereotypes will be equally present, yet will manifest themselves differently depending on the target audience and product being pitched. Dominant discourses surrounding gender encourage us to accept that the human race is naturally divided in to male and female, each gender realistically identifiable by a set of immutable characteristics. In Foucaults terms, relations of difference are social constructs belonging to social orders that contain hierarchies of power, defined, named and delimited by institutional discourses, to produce social practices. Gender differences are symbolic categories (Saco, 1992:25). These categories are used to ascribe certain characteristics to men and women. The representation of those characteristics determines how men and women are presented in cultural forms, and really whether an individual is identified as masculine or feminine. It is important to understand the big role that media, in general, and specifically advertisement plays in maintaining an ingrained gender hierarchy. The closer study of mens and womens images as presented in advertising should result in uncovering the messages about their identity and role in society. Until recently, masculinity in the media was not considered problematic since there was the notion that masculinity is not constructed. Masculinity remains the untouched and untouchable against which femininity figures as the repressed and/or unspoken (Holmlund, 1993:214). During the 1990s this notion started to change since a significant decline in portrayal of mens traditional roles became obvious. Until then though, qualities such as being aggressive, autonomous and active were always naturally attributed to men. Until mid 80s men also seemed to be the only ones that occupied powerful